Category Archives: Gun Violence

Suicide Rate Up 33% in Less than 20 years, Yet Funding Lags Behind Other Top Killers!

Screen Shot 2018-12-02 at 8.35.40 PM

First let us all take a minute to remember Past President 41, George H.W. Bush, probably one of the most respected past presidents. is experience, knowledge, and experience was amazing and so welcomed and useful to run a country. This former president has inspired us all with his toughness mixed with judiciousness and kindness. We could all learn much from 41! Now a moment of silence…………………..

Suicide rates are up 33% in the U.S., yet funding lags behind that of all other top causes of death — leaving suicide research in its “infancy.”

More than 47,000 Americans killed themselves in 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported Thursday, contributing to an overall decline in U.S. life expectancy. Since 1999, the suicide rate has climbed 33 percent.

Americans are more than twice as likely to die by their own hands, of their own will, than by someone else’s. But while homicides spark vigils and protests, entering into headlines, presidential speeches, and police budgets, suicides don’t. Still shrouded in stigma, many suicides go unacknowledged save for the celebrities – Robin Williams, Kate Spade, Anthony Bourdain – punctuating the unrelenting rise in suicide deaths with a brief public outcry.

And research suggests our ways of living may be partly to blame, in ways that don’t bode well for the future.

Alcohol and substance abuse are risk factors, and both are increasing. Isolationraises the risk, and nearly half of Americans say they sometimes or always feel alone. Increasing smartphone use has been linked to suicidal thoughts in teens. Even climate change has been found to have roughly the same effect on increasing suicides as an economic recession.

The leading causes of death have declined since 1999

The Suicide rate has increased more the 33%

Screen Shot 2018-12-01 at 10.16.49 PM“We’re trying to reduce suicide death rates in the face of a culture that’s ever more fascinated with violence, that has a bunch of opiates around left and right, where family structure isn’t getting more cohesive and neither is community structure,” said Thomas Joiner, a leading suicide researcher. “That’s a lot to fight against.”

Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. and is often called a public health emergency.

But money to research and combat suicide continues to lag behind other leading killers and even non-fatal conditions. The National Institutes of Health, the largest public funder of biomedical research in the world, spent $68 million on suicide last year. It spent nearly five times that studying sleep and 10 times more on breast cancer, which killed fewer people in 2016.

“What I’m just painfully aware of is that all of the areas where the top 10 causes of death in the United States have gone down have received significantly more attention,” said John Draper, director of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. “There’s been so much more put into every one of those causes of death than suicide. … If you didn’t do anything for heart disease and you didn’t do anything for cancer, then you’d see those rates rise, too.”

NIH officials say they do not expressly budget by disease, and research funding in other categories could affect suicide without being suicide-specific. The NIH spent $2.7 billion on mental health, for example.

“A large portion of the research is not disease-oriented but based on human biology. For instance, if we’re studying brain function, it might be pertinent to suicide, but we might not necessarily categorize it as suicide,” said Michael Lauer, NIH deputy director for extramural research. “Same with depression, which obviously is linked to suicide.”

Still, many in the field wish for dedicated spending. Jill Harkavy-Friedman, vice president of research for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, advocates for $150 million a year for suicide research, still far less than the $592 million the NIH allocated to fight kidney disease, the nation’s No. 9 killer.

“We are happy that other health conditions are getting the money. … It’s not an either/or,” Harkavy-Friedman said. But “the cost of suicide is enormous, and people don’t realize it.”

The cost — in dollars, in suffering, in science

Suicides and suicide attempts cost $93.5 billion a year, most of it in lost productivity, a 2016 study estimated. And that’s nothing compared with the cost in human lives and suffering.

Joiner recognized the human toll 30 years ago – even before his own father died by suicide.

As a graduate student in psychology in 1990, Joiner had begun focusing on depression. That summer, his father, a former Marine sergeant turned software pioneer, took his own life.

“He was a successful, visionary, ambitious, intelligent man,” Joiner said. “And he had an illness that ended up being fatal. That’s how I see him.”

Joiner, now a psychology professor and clinician at Florida State University, said his father’s death helped persuade him to make studying suicide his life’s work.

“I’d already inclined toward that decision, and this only made it starker. I already knew this was a problem,” he said. “It was a misery for the bereaved, and that’s not to mention the even more acute suffering suicidal people go through in the hours, days, months before their death – just a lot of suffering all around. And it wasn’t being studied then.”

It’s studied now, but given the size of the problem, we still know surprisingly little about it.

“I think that we’ve told the public that we know more about suicide than we know,” said April Foreman, a clinician on the American Association of Suicidology board of directors.

When someone dies by suicide, people and the media trot out a series of “maybes,” she said: Maybe it was mental illness. Maybe it was losing a job or getting divorced.

“Maybe it was not getting a phone call at just the right moment. Maybe. But maybe something was happening in their brains that in 20 years we’ll understand,” she said. “We tell stories about bullying or sadness like it’s a fairy tale. There’s probably real science there, and we just haven’t decided to treat it like that. … We’re telling stories about why people kill themselves that isn’t scientifically based, that are very inaccurate, and are just the easier stories to tell because it’s much harder to say we don’t know.”

Joiner compares suicide research today to “cancer research about 100 years ago.”

“People were so scared of the topic they wouldn’t even say the word,” but cancer research has since made great strides, he said. “I think the same thing will happen with suicide research, but that’s decades in the future. Right now we’re in our infancy.”

Suicide studies reflect the broad sweep of the current science. Some focus on genetic factors involved in maintaining brain circuits and neurotransmitters, biomarkers of at-risk populations, brain PET imaging and medications; others focus on psychotherapies, preventing substance abuse and school nurse interventions.

The effectiveness of prevention efforts has been difficult to determine as suicide rates increase, said Andrew Sperling, director of legislative affairs for the National Alliance on Mental Illness.

“The challenge is there are various suicide prevention programs, and we’re still learning a lot about what works and doesn’t work,” Sperling said. “There’s not a lot of evidence we’ve been very effective at it.”

Scientific knowledge is limited. Public knowledge is wrong.

Even key discoveries that enjoy broad support among researchers have yet to percolate into the public consciousness. 

Public health experts say: Suicide is preventable.

People think: Suicide is inevitable.

Consciously or unconsciously, many Americans write off those who seriously consider killing themselves as hopeless causes, unreachable. A study in 2017 showed that people are skeptical of a suicidal person’s ability to recover – the idea that even if we stop the person today, we won’t tomorrow.

“If you think once someone’s suicidal that they’re just going to die, then it doesn’t make sense to invest money in that,” Joiner said of a common point of “ignorance.”

Science tells us that isn’t true. So does common sense. Survivors of suicide attempts themselves are walking proof.

In 2016, nearly 45,000 died by suicide, but the number who attempted is almost 29 times that — meaning more than one and a quarter-million survived. Though a previous suicide attempt makes the risk of dying by suicide higher, it is just one of many risk factors. Nine out of 10 people who survive a suicide attempt will not go on to die by suicide later, according to studies that have tracked survivors over decades.

Cliff Bauman, a National Guardsman who struggles with post-traumatic stress disorder, attempted suicide once, but when he faced a crisis again he was able to get through it by using learned coping skills, including being aware of his triggers and having people he can trust.

“I made the conscious decision (after my attempt) to go back into counseling,” he said. “(I) was opening up about why I did what I did and how it got to that point, and I felt suddenly … the darkness doesn’t seem so dark.”

Another misconception is that suicidal ideation is rare. But one in 33 American adults seriously thought about suicide in 2016, the commonness of the thoughts belied by how rarely they’re discussed.

“Suicide is reflective of other issues that we don’t want to talk about,” said Adam Swanson, a senior prevention specialist at the Suicide Prevention Resource Center. “We don’t want to talk about the fact that people can’t afford to pay electric bills. … We don’t want to talk about the … pain people carry.”

Survivors are often the first to distinguish that it’s not a desire to die that drove their attempt but a desire to escape the pain. It’s something Shelby Rowe, a PTSD and suicide attempt survivor who works in suicide prevention knows firsthand.

“If I could go back to talk to myself that night when all I could hear in my head was ‘You can’t live like this anymore, you can’t live like this anymore’ … I would have said: ‘It’s OK, you’re right. It is really awful right now, and you can’t live like this anymore, but please live, because there is another way. There is another beautiful life waiting for you.'”

Mental and emotional pain is less acknowledged – both by doctors and the public – than physical pain, Foreman noted.

“It is OK for someone to suffer from wanting to kill themselves and to suffer from trying to kill themselves or even die that way, but it’s not OK to feel sick with the flu for a few days,” she said.

Stymied by stigma

The lack of compassion people feel for those who die by suicide is reflected in the lack of funding. Stigma goes beyond misconceptions.

“Stigma is about fear, and suicide is associated with our most primal fears – fear of death … fears of traumatic loss and our fears of mental illness,” Draper said.

Fear and discomfort also can be expressed as anger.

Retired California Highway Patrol officer Kevin Briggs said he has heard drivers shout “Go ahead and jump!” to people contemplating suicide on the Golden Gate Bridge.

The taunts reflect a disdain some people feel toward those who attempt suicide, whom they see as “weak” or “crazy,” a 2017 study found. Though mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, not everyone who is mentally ill has suicidal thoughts, and not everyone who attempts suicide is mentally ill.

But even statistics on the relationship between mental illness and suicide are incomplete “because we’re not funding it,” Harkavy-Friedman said.

“Every year we go to (Capitol) Hill and we advocate at the state level for fully funding the National Violent Death Reporting System,” she said.

The tracking system, now in place in just 40 states, helps health experts and law enforcement officials identify common circumstances associated with specific types of death, including suicide. Suicide can be especially hard to track without a strong system in place because family members may try to cover it up or pressure officials not to enter “suicide” into records.

In the past, even in clear cases of suicide, families were “not telling anybody for years because they thought they would be blamed or stigmatized,” Harkavy-Friedman said.

Stigma is not only an obstacle to accurate reporting, but it also has made politicians shy away. It’s part of why suicide wasn’t seriously studied or even discussed until the past few decades.

“Twenty years ago when I worked on (Capitol) Hill, you wouldn’t find suicide prevention on federal documents. It wasn’t talked about in the Department of Defense or in the general public. There were no researchers. There was no national strategy for suicide prevention,” said Jerry Reed, a doctor on the executive committee for the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention.

That changed in 1998 when Congress declared suicide a national problem, Reed said.

“Since then, the country has caught up to the significance of this issue, but it still has a long way to go.”

Congressional support is key because it affects the overall NIH budget. Congress also can pass special provisions regarding certain issues, as it has for Alzheimer’s and opioid abuse.

“Congress has made that a clear priority,” Lauer said.

Where’s the hope? A little bit in a lot of places

Despite challenges, experts agree our understanding of suicide is light-years ahead of where it was just a generation ago. And suicide prevention is at “unprecedented” levels, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reports.

Therapy

Through interventions, including medication and therapy, Joiner says he sees suicidal patients at his clinic go from “pretty desperate, pretty intent to die” to “turn(ing) a corner – and usually it’s shockingly quick.”

Joiner theorizes that suicide results from a combination of factors: feeling like a burden, isolation, and having lethal means and a lack of normal fear of death.

Short-circuit one of that – isolation, for instance – and you might stop someone from hurting himself.

“It stands to reason if you reconnect a little bit then risk should abate, so we just arrange within the context of people’s day-to-day lives small increased doses of social connection,” Joiner said. “It’s a very simple behavioral idea, but it seems to work if people do it.”

Asking a friend to lunch would be a great example, Joiner said, but some patients don’t have a friend. They might start simply with “show up to this community event and stay for 10 minutes.”

Of course, some people are chronically suicidal, but Joiner and others note that they can also feel relief through targeted therapy.

Shear Avory, a transgender person who sees a therapist (not associated with Joiner), has lived with daily suicidal ideation and continues to hold on to hope.

“For so long I’ve been stuck in just wanting everything to disappear, from wanting the trauma to go away,” said Avory, whose traumatic childhood included foster homes and conversion therapy. “I’m still alive. I’m still here. That feels like an accomplishment. … Healing is not a linear experience.”

Low-cost changes to health care

With unlimited funding, Joiner said he’d put resources toward practical things proven to work, such as “means safety” – which can include everything from putting pedestrian barriers on bridges to locking up guns and medicine cabinets – and training doctors to identify at-risk patients.

Training primary care doctors and other medical staff is the foundation of the Zero Suicide program.

Zero Suicide founder Mike Hogan said that though suicide is incredibly complex, determining who is at risk can actually be very simple: Once patients are in a health care setting, ask them. Studies have shown that asking people if they’re thinking about suicide does not plant the idea in their heads.

“If people are asked, they often really want to get it off their chest, and they want some help, and it opens the door to help,” Hogan said. “A little bit does a lot: asking, safety planning, reducing lethal means and reaching out … turns out to be quite powerful.”

A 2014 study found that 83% of those who die by suicide saw a health care provider in the year before their death. That’s particularly true for older white men, who account for most suicides.

“We can’t predict when they’ll die, just like we can’t predict when someone might die of a heart attack,” Hogan said. “But we can predict who needs a little help just like someone might need help because their lipid levels are high.”

Hogan said two nonprofit organizations that offer mental health treatments – Centerstone, which spans multiple states, and the Institute for Family Health in upstate New York – saw roughly 60 percent reductions in suicides after adopting Zero Suicide.

Becky Stoll, vice president for crisis and disaster management at Centerstone, said one of the biggest improvements has been the methodical approach to plugging holes in care. For instance, coordination between the suicide prevention committee and their IT department resulted in a program that changed the font color of high-risk patients if they missed appointments, which would then alert them to start calling the patient. If the patient didn’t answer, they’d start calling their friends and family. It was a simple change and it saved lives. In one case, a man’s wife called him after she had received calls from Centerstone. He had been standing on a bridge at the time.

“I’ve been in the field since the late ’80s, and I’ve not seen the enthusiasm the results that we’re seeing now,” Stoll said. “We don’t win every time, but we win a lot. When we know better, we have to do better. And embedding these frameworks into systems of care … it really does seem like we can have an impact. It seems like that’s catching wildfire across the U.S. … (We need to) make people feel they have lives worth living.”

Colorado has embraced Zero Suicide as one tool in its fight. But advocates are more closely watching the newly formed Colorado-National Collaborative, a partnership aimed at reducing suicides thereby 20percent by 2024.

Through a combination of funding from state and federal sources and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Colorado’s Office of Suicide Prevention went from an annual budget of $536,000 about 18 months ago to $2.6 million as of Sept. 30. If the partnership between scientists and public health professionals proves effective in the state with the eighth-worst suicide rate in the country, it could be adopted nationwide.

Removing the means

Colorado and other states also have joined the Gun Shop Project, in which gun store owners and firing range instructors distribute suicide prevention materials as part of an effort to reach people who might be looking for a tool to commit suicide.

Guns were used in 23,000 of the 45,000 suicide deaths in 2016.

These interventions focus on the “means,” or how suicides are completed.

“We may not understand suicidality very well … (but) we know people don’t die of feeling suicidal – they die from a gunshot wound, they die from a medication overdose. Just like you don’t die by (a driver) having poor depth perception, you die from them striking the car and your head hitting the windshield,” Foreman said.

‘On the cusp’?

Many in the suicide research and prevention field describe it as being on a precipice – the science is not where it needs to be, but it shows promise; the funding is not where it needs to be, but it has increased. On the other side, they hope, are the results: a nation in which fewer lives are lost to suicide or tormented by suicidal thoughts.

“With suicide, I hope that we’re on a cusp of a movement,” Foreman said. “Where the people who have survived suicide attempts, the people who live with chronic suicidality, the families, the loved ones, the people who are left, that they get up and say: This suffering is the same as someone who has died by HIV … or cancer. It deserves the same quality science.”

Suicide, at a 50-year peak, pushes down US life expectancy

Mike Stobbe wrote that Suicides and drug overdoses pushed up U.S. deaths last year, and drove a continuing decline in how long Americans are expected to live.

Overall, there were more than 2.8 million U.S. deaths in 2017, or nearly 70,000 more than the previous year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday. It was the most deaths in a single year since the government began counting more than a century ago.

The increase partly reflects the nation’s growing and aging population. But it’s deaths in younger age groups—particularly middle-aged people—that have had the largest impact on calculations of life expectancy, experts said.

“These sobering statistics are a wake-up call that we are losing too many Americans, too early and too often, to conditions that are preventable,” Dr. Robert Redfield, the CDC’s director, said in a statement.

The suicide death rate last year was the highest it’s been in at least 50 years, according to U.S. government records. There were more than 47,000 suicides, up from a little under 45,000 the year before.

A GENERAL DECLINE

For decades, U.S. life expectancy was on the upswing, rising a few months nearly every year. Now it’s trending the other way: It fell in 2015, stayed level in 2016, and declined again last year, the CDC said.

The nation is in the longest period of a generally declining life expectancy since the late 1910s, when World War I and the worst flu pandemic in modern history combined to kill nearly 1 million Americans. Life expectancy in 1918 was 39.

Aside from that, “we’ve never really seen anything like this,” said Robert Anderson, who oversees CDC death statistics.

In the nation’s 10 leading causes of death, only the cancer death rate fell in 2017. Meanwhile, there were increases in seven others—suicide, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, flu/pneumonia, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and unintentional injuries.

An underlying factor is that the death rate for heart disease—the nation’s No. 1 killer—has stopped falling. In years past, declines in heart disease deaths were enough to offset increases in some other kinds of death, but no longer, Anderson said.

(The CDC’s numbers do sometimes change. This week, CDC officials said they had revised their life expectancy estimate for 2016 after some additional data came in.)

WHAT’S DRIVING IT?

CDC officials did not speculate about what’s behind declining life expectancy, but Dr. William Dietz, a disease prevention expert at George Washington University, sees a sense of hopelessness.

Financial struggles, a widening income gap, and divisive politics are all casting a pall over many Americans, he suggested. “I really do believe that people are increasingly hopeless and that that leads to drug use, it leads potentially to suicide,” he said.

VoteCast, a wide-ranging survey of the electorate conducted by The Associated Press, found voters expressing pessimistic views about the future: About half of voters nationwide said they expect life in America for the next generation to be worse than it is today. Nearly a quarter said life would be better and about as many said it would be the same. VoteCast surveyed more than 115,000 voters nationwide as Americans cast ballots in this year’s midterm elections.

Drug overdose deaths also continued to climb, surpassing 70,000 last year, in the midst of the deadliest drug overdose epidemic in U.S. history. The death rate rose 10 percent from the previous year, smaller than the 21 percent jump seen between 2016 and 2017.

That’s not quite cause for celebration, said Dr. John Rowe, a professor of health policy and aging at Columbia University.

“Maybe it’s starting to slow down, but it hasn’t turned around yet,” Rowe said. “I think it will take several years.”

Accidental drug overdoses account for more than a third of the unintentional injury deaths, and intentional drug overdoses account for about a tenth of the suicides, said Dr. Holly Hedegaard, a CDC injury researcher.

OTHER FINDINGS

The CDC figures are based mainly on a review of 2017 death certificates. The life expectancy figure is based on current death trends and other factors.

The agency also said:

—A baby born last year in the U.S. is expected to live about 78 years and 7 months, on average. An American born in 2015 or 2016 was expected to live about a month longer, and one born in 2014 about two months longer than that.

—The suicide rate was 14 deaths per 100,000 people. That’s the highest since at least 1975.

—Montana had the highest suicide rate, and New York the lowest. Suicide rates were nearly twice as high in rural counties than in urban ones.

—The percentage of suicides due to drug overdose has been inching downward.

—Deaths from flu and pneumonia rose by about 6 percent. The 2017-2018 flu season was one of the worst in more than a decade, and some of the deaths from early in that season appeared in the new death dates.

—West Virginia was once again the state with the highest rate of drug overdose deaths. The CDC did not release state rates for suicides.

—Death rates for heroin, methadone, and prescription opioid painkillers were flat. But deaths from the powerful painkiller fentanyl and its close opioid cousins continued to soar in 2017.

—Gun deaths rose for the third year in a row, to nearly 40,000. That’s about 1,000 more than in 2016. They had been hovering around 33,500 deaths until a few years ago.

Like in other years, most gun deaths were suicides. Earlier CDC reports have noted increasing rates of suicide by gun. In 2017, it about 60 percent of them were by gun.

More next week as I discuss the discussion that we need to have and those who are left behind and suffer the most.

Suicide Lifeline: If you or someone you know may be struggling with suicidal thoughts, you can call the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) any time of day or night or chat online.

 

 

 

California Fire: What is the Impact on Health in the Long Run and the Relationship to Climate Change? Also, Consider What Happens When We are Outspoken on Gun Violence.

 

39500554_1676963889099930_3922787849857925120_nThis next interesting report struck a nerve when my daughter in northern California called me because she was having difficulty finishing her daily 7 miles run without getting short of breath. The administrators at her graduate school were advising students to exercise at the inside facilities.

“There is simply no president for this”Salynn Boyles at the International ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting wrote that the short- and long-term health impact of environmental events, such as the Camp Fire in California, on large populations are not well understood, according to experts at the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI) annual scientific meeting.

The Camp Fire, which was still burning across more than 200 miles of Northern California on Sunday, ranked among one of the worst natural disasters in the U.S. this century, with the death toll continuing the climb and close to 1,300 people still counted among the missing.

After burning for more than a week, the fire elevated air pollution levels in San Francisco and the surrounding areas to the point where the region reportedly has the poorest air quality on the planet.

Most outdoor events in San Francisco (about 180 miles from the fire zone) on Saturday were canceled or postponed, including the game between football rivals Stanford University and the University of California Berkeley. San Francisco officials also took the city’s iconic open-air cable cars out of commission due to the poor air quality.

David Peden, MD, of the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health in Chapel Hill, spoke about the Camp Fire at an ACAAI session on the impact of the environment on allergic disease.

“At these levels, any outdoor activity is dangerous for people with chronic diseases like COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] or heart disease,” Peden said. “Everyone understands the allergy risk and the risk for other airway diseases. But there is a clear signal of inflammation in cardiac disease and breathing pollution triggers inflammation.”

Peden, who studies the role of air pollution in the airway and cardiovascular disease, noted that while California has seen wildfires of increasing frequency and intensity, other regions of the country are also increasingly vulnerable as drought conditions intensify. These areas include eastern Montana, western portions of the Dakotas, and large parts of the Mexican border.

Peden, along with ACAAI attendee Katherine Gundling, MD, of the University of California San Francisco, told MedPage Today that current air quality in San Francisco — reported to be in the very unhealthy PM2.5 range of 201-300 on Saturday — compared unfavorably to some of the most polluted areas of China and India, which have average air quality PM2.5 in the range of 100-150.

Peden stated that during the 2013 California Rim Fire, daily air pollution exposure levels among people in urban areas affected by the fire were up to 35 times greater than the 24-hour PM2.5 standard (35μg/m3) considered safe by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Gundling agreed that it will take time to understand the short- and long-term health impact of events like the Camp Fire.

“There is simply no precedent for this,” she told MedPage Today. “We are used to wildfires, but not fires that kill large numbers of people who have no chance of escape. That is the new and horrible reality we are living.”

She added that the increasing frequency and intensity of the California fires should serve as a wake-up call for the country.

“These fires are different,” she said. “It’s not just that there are more of them and that they are more severe. It’s a number of factors. It’s climate change. It’s forest management. All of this has to be addressed.”

Forecasts were for air quality to remain in the unhealthy 100-200 range through Tuesday in San Francisco, the East Bay, and other parts of the Bay area. Rain bringing wind is expected in the area on Tuesday.

Public health officials advised residents to stay indoors whenever possible and wear N95 masks when outdoors. Some city governments and independent organizations are distributing face masks.

Now consider a research study, which looked at air pollution and intellectual disabilities in children.

Climate Change Is Already Hurting U.S. Communities, Federal Report Says

Rebecca Hersher discussed on All Things Considered that climate change is already causing more frequent and severe weather across the U.S., and the country is poised to suffer massive damage to infrastructure, ecosystems, health and the economy if global warming is allowed to continue, according to the most comprehensive federal climate report to date.

The fourth National Climate Assessment is the culmination of years of research and analysis by hundreds of top climate scientists in the country. The massive report details the many ways in which global climate change is already affecting American communities, from hurricanes to wildfires to floods to drought.

“Climate change is already affecting every part of the United States, almost every sector of the United States, be it agriculture or forestry or energy, tourism,” says George Mason University professor Andrew Light, who is one of the report’s editors. “It’s going to hurt cities, it’s going to hurt people in the countryside, and, as the world continues to warm, things are going to get worse.”

President Trump, numerous Cabinet members and some members of Congress have questioned whether humans cause climate change or whether it is happening at all.

“I don’t think there’s a hoax. I do think there’s probably a difference. But I don’t know that it’s man-made,” the president said on CBS’ 60 Minutes in October.

In an August interview about deadly wildfires in California, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke told television station KCRA Sacramento: “This has nothing to do with climate change. This has to do with active forest management.”

The new report, mandated by Congress and published by the U.S. Global Change Research Program, is the latest and most detailed confirmation that humans are driving climate change and that Americans are already adapting to and suffering from its effects. Climate change is “an immediate threat, not a far-off possibility,” it says.

For example, large wildfires are getting more frequent because of climate change. The report notes that the area burned in wildfires nationwide each year has increased over the past 20 years, and “although projections vary by state and or region, on average, the annual area burned by lightning-ignited wildfire is expected to increase by at least 30 percent by 2060.”

Millions Of Acres Burned By Wildfires In The U.S. From 1985 To 2017

Screen Shot 2018-11-25 at 11.36.57 PMAlthough California and other Western states have made headlines for deadly fires, the report says the southeastern U.S. is also projected to suffer more wildfires.

Many regions are also experiencing more extreme rain — and ensuing floods — including the Midwest, Northeast, Southeast and Southern Great Plains, which includes Texas and Oklahoma. The most extreme example is Hurricane Harvey, which dumped 60 inches of rain on parts of southeast Texas in 2017 and flooded an enormous region from Houston up to the Louisiana border.

And the authors make clear that more extreme rainfall and flooding is widespread, going beyond major hurricanes. In the Midwest, runoff from heavy rains has depleted some cropland of nutrients. In the Northeast, towns are dealing with catastrophic flooding from summer thunderstorms.

“If you look at the whole U.S., the amount of precipitation overall may be less, but it’s delivered in these very intense precipitation events,” explains Brenda Ekwurzel, an author of the report and senior climate scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists. “That’s how you get a lot of flash flooding, especially after a wildfire.”

In the Southwest, climate change is driving a particularly devious phenomenon: climate change is contributing to drought and flooding in the same place. Drought takes hold for months. When rain does fall, it’s increasingly likely to come as an extreme rainstorm, which causes flash flooding and landslides. Scientists predict that dynamic will only get worse as climate change progresses.

The report’s authors also focus multiple chapters on the health effects of climate change. In a section on air pollution, they write:

“Unless counteracting efforts to improve air quality are implemented, climate change will worsen existing air pollution levels. This worsened air pollution would increase the incidence of adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects, including premature death.”

And as the climate warms, disease-carrying insects such as mosquitoes and ticks are also expected to expand their territory.

The authors warn that those who are most economically and physically vulnerable will continue to be most severely impacted by climate change, whether it’s air pollution, disease, floods or fire disasters.

Climate adaptation is already taking place at the local, state and regional level, the report says. It gives examples including water conservation, forest management, infrastructure updates and agricultural advances.

“The real leading edge of action in the United States, now, to deal with climate change is at the non-federal level,” says Light, who also serves as a senior fellow at the World Resources Institute think tank. “It states, it’s cities, it’s businesses.”

But far more involvement is needed on all levels to change human behavior.

“Successful adaptation has been hindered by the assumption that climate conditions are and will be similar to those in the past,” the authors write, arguing that acknowledging climate change, adapting to its effects and working to limit global warming, while expensive, will save money and lives in the long term.

Those findings are in stark contrast to policies put forward by the Trump administration, which include announcing that the U.S. intends to withdraw from the 2015 Paris climate agreement, which set international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

While the new report does not make policy recommendations, it is designed to be a scientific resource for leaders at all levels of government.

“We’re putting a cost on inaction,” explains Ekwurzel, referring to future global inaction to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. “There’s some really heavy duty news in here. I mean, we’re talking billions of dollars as the cost of inaction each year. I think a lot of people in the U.S. will be surprised by that.”

Study uncovers the link between air pollution and intellectual disabilities in children

The journal Wiley reported that British children with intellectual disabilities are more likely than their peers to live in areas with high outdoor air pollution, according to a new Journal of Intellectual Disability Research study funded by Public Health England.

The findings come from an analysis of data extracted from the UK’s Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample of more than 18,000 UK children born from 2000 to 2002.

Averaging across ages, children with intellectual disabilities were 33 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of diesel particulate matter, 30 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of nitrogen dioxide, 30 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of carbon monoxide, and 17 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of sulphur dioxide.

The authors note that intellectual disability is more common among children living in more socioeconomically deprived areas, which tend to have higher levels of air pollution; however, exposure to outdoor air pollution may impede cognitive development, thereby increasing the risk of intellectual disability.

“We know that people with intellectual disabilities in the UK have poorer health and die earlier than they should. This research adds another piece to the jigsaw of understanding why that is the case and what needs to be done about it,” said lead author Dr. Eric Emerson, of The University of Sydney, in Australia.

So, whether you believe in climate change and its relationship to the wildfires in California the extent of the fires, what we are seeing now with the physical damage is just the beginning.

Finally, after my post on gun control look at this news report: Milwaukee Girl Who Condemned Gun Violence Is Killed By Bullet

Jessica Reedy wrote that two years ago when sixth-grader Sandra Parks was at Milwaukee’s Keefe Avenue School, she wrote an essay about gun violence:

“We are in a state of chaos. In the city in which I live, I hear and see examples of chaos almost every day. Little children are victims of senseless gun violence. There is too much black on black crime. As an African-American, that makes me feel depressed. Many people have lost faith in America and its ability to be a living example of Dr. King’s dream!”

The essay titled “Our Truth” took third place in Milwaukee Public School’s annual Martin Luther King Jr. essay contest. In January 2017, Sandra told Wisconsin Public Radio, “All you hear about is somebody dying and somebody getting shot. People do not just think about whose father or son or granddaughter or grandson was just killed.”

She also said she looked forward to doing big things in her life. “I would like to stop all the violence and… negativity that’s going on in the world,” she said. “And stop all the black on black crimes, and all the rumors and stereotypes that’s been spread around.”

How horrible an outcome for this sixth-grade girl and just for her condemnation of gun violence!

Where are we going as a society?